Varicose veins (varicose veins) is one of the most widespread and the most ancient of vascular diseases. With the help of egyptian papyrus and of the excavations was found a mummy with signs of varicose veins.
The definition of "Varicose" comes from the latin word "varix", which means "expansion", therefore, the disease has received the name of "Varicose veins". This disease is characterized by the extension and the increase of the length priphriques veins in the form of a serpentibus of the deformation, as well as the violation of the flow of blood through them, resulting from the failure of the valve of the device, and the weakening of the wall. The disease mainly affects the veins of the lower limbs, so that the main load of the blood flow (large volume) are on them, therefore, preference is given in this section.
The anatomy of the veins of the lower limbs
In the area of the lower end of distinguish 2 groups of veins: superficial and deep. The first group (the superficial veins) are located in the subcutaneous fat fibre; the second group (the deepest) is located more deeply, therefore, accompanied by the arteries.The first and the second group are connected to each other using perforating veins. The skeleton of the wall is a well-educated elastic and collagen fibers.
The wall of the veins is divided into 3 layers:
- the outer layer is the adventitia, consists of loose tissue and smooth muscle cells arranged longitudinally, surrounded by small vessels and nerves to supply vienna
- the middle layer - the media, composed of smooth muscle cells, located circularly
- the inner layer - tunica intima, formed endothlium composed of smooth muscle cells located longitudinally, it forms folds in the shape of a swallow's nest, located in front of the other, bearing the name of "gates" support the tone of the vessel wall.
The valves of the veins are arranged in such a way that, provided by the department centripetal blood from the lower limbs to the heart from the superficial veins to the deep, to prevent the reverse blood flow and the pressure increase. When closing longer defend the small vessels (venules, capillaries) during a pressure increase in the working time disorders musculo-venous pump of the lower limb. Therefore, the defeat of the mean and/or the inner layer of the vein wall leads to the development of varicose veins.
Large subcutaneous vienna feet – will take place in the interior of the lower member, a valve, several valves, it falls down in a multitude of veins collect the blood front of the thigh
The small subcutaneous vienna feet is going on outside of the lower limb, also, has valves, it will throw small vienna the side and the rear surface of the leg, the two veins are connected by the veins.
- Deep vienna: (Front and Rear, the large tibia of vienna, Popliteal vienna, Femoral vienna) is a group of veins, which in turn affects a later stage of the disease in the case of non-effective treatment, or its absence.
Causes and risk factors in the development of varicose veins
The exact cause of the disease is not known, we only know that, under the influence of some factors is developing a weakening of the valves, an increase in pressure and the loss of elasticity of the wall of the water surface and veins.
- Genetic predisposition: transmission of varicose veins by inheritance occurs as a result of a mutation of a gene responsible for the structure of the vessel wall, as a result of his mutation, children are born with a weakness in connective or muscle tissue of the vessel wall, or the disadvantage of its valves (lack of numbers), and it results in a weakness of the vessel wall and an increase of the pressure in the veins.
- Hormonal changes (pregnancy, menopause): during the pregnancy varies hormone of the body composition (increase of progesterone and decrease of estrogen), which influence the education of the coagulation factors (increase), the reduction of the tonus of the venous wall (in the wake of the destruction of collagen fibers and elastic fibers of the vessel wall), all of this leads to the formation of blood clots, obstruction of the vessels and their deformation.
- Obesity: excess weight causes sedentarius, mode of life, the result of which is a slowing of blood circulation, the greater the excess of fat increases the abdominal pressure, which disrupts the flow of blood in the veins, subsequently, develops a stasis in the veins and the possible evolutions of the disease.
- Diabetes mellitus: chronic high levels of blood sugar over time damages the walls of blood vessels, which is a favourable environment for the development of blood clots.
- Alcohol abuse: alcohol abuse leads to dehydration and a thickening of the blood, is the result of the use of the clots that clog the veins and disrupt the flow of blood.
- The lifting of heavy objects (dockers),the long march of long years or working standing up (vendors, templates): associated with a decrease in muscle tone, increased intra-abdominal pressure, and as a result the slowdown and the difficulty of the flow of blood to the heart and the evolution of its stagnation in the lower limbs.
- Congenital disorders of coagulation, with: innate to the hypercoagulability (excessive production of factors foldable the blood) leads to the formation of blood clots, and violations of the promotion of blood through the vessels.
- Poor nutrition: the lack of certain vitamins (vit.C, E, R, plant fibers play a role in the strengthening of the walls of the blood vessels and improve blood circulation).
- The port is a narrow linen: continuous port leads to the mechanical compression of the vein, which causes the difficulty of the outflow of venous of the lower limb.
- An overdose of the drugs increasing blood coagulation: risk of formation of blood clots and blockage of blood vessels.
- Surgical procedures:the loss of one blood volume, not to a comfortable position on the operating table (the compression of certain vessels), this causes the risk of development of blood clots.
Complications of varicose veins
- The formation of clots, the result of the stagnation of blood in the veins;
- the detachment of a blood clot and occlusion of the vessel corresponds to its diameter;
- thrombophlebitis (resulting from the formation of a blood clot in the lumen of the vein occurs in an inflammation of its walls);
- pulmonary embolism (thrombus arrach by the flow of blood is in the pulmonary artery, which takes part in the bloodstream by a small circle. If the diameter of a blood clot corresponds to a diameter of trunk of this artery, there can occur a sudden death. If a clot of blood, or less in diameter, it passes through the branches of the pulmonary artery, causing a pulmonary infarction or edema).
- ulcers, trophic, or eczema of the feet a result of the violation of the power supply (poor circulation of blood leading to a lack of revenue of the oxygen in the tissues, which is the most important food of the tissues of the body);
- swelling of the different parts of the body resulting from the stagnation in the veins (they are soft, elastic, and of a bluish colour, their education does not depend on the time of day, often trained in the area of the affected area);
- dermatitis (inflammation of the skin in the affected area) due to the violation of the power of this site;
- the color change of the skin in the area of the affected area;
- seal subcutaneous fat in the area of the area affected by edema.
The diagnosis of varicose veins
- Duplex sonography of the veins most often the method used to evaluate the blood flow in the vessel and see him-even a vase.
- Dopplerography – a method that only evaluates the blood flow in the vessel;
- Phlebography - the introduction of a contrast material intravenously and the study of x-rays of the painting;
- Phleboscintigraphy. – intravenous radiopharmaceutical and the special monitoring of the device.
For the study, only the superficial veins apply: inspection, palpation, and the first 3 mentioned above, the method. The last 2 of the method applied during the defeat of the deep veins.
The treatment of varicose veins
The non-surgical treatment
- The medication is usually do not cure the disease until the end, and only improves the functioning of the valves, the power supply of the vascular wall and the bloodstream, prevents the formation of new blood clots: in the footsteps of venotonics are appointed in all cases of varicose veins. Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory drugs ointments prescribed in the case of complications such as thrombophlebitis. Blood thinners are affected at later stages of the disease, the resorption and the prevention of blood clots.
Recall that the optimal treatment can pick up your doctor, taking into account individual peculiarities.
- The traditional methods of treatment (as a complement to a medical treatment): wearing a jersey of compression (the bottom) and physical exercises (swim, bike, ski, feet above the head, special gymnastics (the"bicycle" - lying on the back, just barely breathing, imagine that you turn the pedals of a bike; alternately fold and unfold the foot in the ankle in the front and the back) apply for the purpose of improving the flow of blood, but only not complicated cases); the showers (under the jet of water to keep the legs, gradually reducing the temperature of the water reaching cold) ; a spa for the feet (not hot) from a decoction of the bark of oak, chestnut, chamomile, st. john's wort; the trituration of the alcohol from the infusion of the flowers of acacia, with leaves of kalanchoe, apple cider vinegar; thrombophlebitis treatment.
- The mode of the day: in the morning, slow to rise from his bed (in about 5 to 10 minutes), during sleep, place the roller under the heel to elevate your feet for about 15 to 200 relative to a bed, the walk must be calm, do not sit transierunt, the legs, connecting the legs of elastic band from the foot to the top of the thigh, the port of the health of storage, a healthy diet, to avoid the tedious movements, and all substances or factors that promote the clotting of the blood, with the exception of smoking, prevention of constipation.
- Diet: the body of the foods containing vitamins strengthen the wall of blood vessels and improve blood circulation: vitamin c (citruses, tomatoes, rose hips, and others), vitamin E ( legumes, liver, egg yolk, green onion), vitamin P (grapefruit, nuts, blackcurrant), bioflavonoids (black cherry, sour cherry), copper (seafood). Enough daily amount of liquid is not less than 1.5 litres. Be limited to the consumption of alcoholic beverages, coffee, pickles, meats.
What there are traditional methods of treatment of varicose veins?
The most popular folk remedies for the treatment of varicose veins, you can apply in the form of decoctions, ointments, lotions and compresses; certain herbs are useful when taken inside.
In a half-liter bottle or a jar filled up to the half of the leaves and flowers of lilac, pour the vodka or alcohol (to the top). Insist 7 days in a dark place, from time to time to tremble. The infusion and use it daily for the lubrication of the shins. The movements should be gentle, starting from the fingertips to the knees.
This dye helps to relieve the inflammation, reduce puffiness, cramps in the calves feet and clean up the painful sensations.
The head of garlic clean, pods, cut in a meat grinder or to push through the frog. Mix the garlic and butter butter (to make twice as much as the garlic) until homogenous consistency. Of the mass to make compresses on the night.
This tool allows you to remove the pain, burning sensation, inflammation in the problem area, also the ointment is the healing of wounds, and bactericidal.
For this recipe you will also need the garlic (to the head) and the mayonnaise on the bank of honey. Well, if it is lime, or of buckwheat honey. The components of the mix and put it in a dark place for 7 days. After that, consumed inside of 1 tablespoon three times a day for half an hour before meals.
Swelling, pain, a feeling of tiredness in the legs disappear quickly; decrease and the symptoms of varicose veins.
Several raw potatoes rubbed on a fine grater and lightly pressed in mass applied to the area of inflammation of the veins. Take about 20-30 minutes, you can leave the compress throughout the night. The best effect will be in reducing consumption to the interior of the half cup of potato juice. The potatoes well calm inflamed skin, relieves the pain, burning sensation, and reduces swelling.
- The ointment of calendula
Make an infusion of the flowers of calendula (1 tablespoon in a glass of hot water), let steep until cool. You can insist in a thermos for an hour. Then strain and mix with 250 g of fat – petrolatum, lanolin, badger fat. For a pleasant smell in the ointment, you can add 5-6 drops of essential oil of rose, bergamot, lavender, grapefruit, and others a Mixture with precaution, it is recommended to scrub, two times per day until complete absorption. Calendula infusion, you can mix it with thyme, hops or nettles.