What are varicose veins

Varicose veins (varicose veins) are a disease characterized by a decrease in the density of the vascular walls and the appearance of the nodes. Most often, when they talk about varicose veins, they mean varicose veins of the saphenous veins of the legs, but the disease can affect absolutely any part of the body. The rarest is the defeat of the lumbar spinal canal. It affects the deep veins.

Most people know what VRV looks like. In the early stages of the disease, large veins and cyanotic blood vessels appear under the skin. They indicate that it is time for the patient to go to a phlebologist. Asterisks may also appear. Next, we will talk about what manifestations of varicose veins can occur in humans and how to treat this ailment.

What are varicose veins?

Despite the relative prevalence of the disease, not everyone knows what varicose veins are and how they differ from other venous pathologies. Ulcus cruris venosum - venous pathology, accompanied by the destruction of their valves, tortuosity and expansion. In the initial stage, spider veins appear on the legs and limbs. They are difficult to spot as they are located on the back of the lower leg or knee.

Chronic varicose veins are often diagnosed by doctors with poor heredity. At the same time, the patient does not have a classic type of venous insufficiency. In patients, it often manifests itself in periods, the skin on the legs becomes dry, there is severity, but then the symptoms of the pathology disappear even without treatment. This does not mean that the patient is cured, it only indicates that the disease is secretly developing.

what are varicose veins and how to treat them

The causes of varicose veins

What causes varicose vein medicine still does not know. Its development is believed to be strongly influenced by the patient's lifestyle. Varicose veins can manifest themselves with severe physical exertion caused by the patient's active work or training. The mechanism of development of varicose veins is to increase the pressure inside the vessels and the weakness of the valves. The following factors provoke the development of this condition:

  • hereditary predisposition;
  • hormonal fluctuations;
  • remains constant in the same position;
  • consumption of highly toxic drinks and medicines;
  • uncomfortable shoes and clothes.

The psychological causes of varicose veins are the stress that a person experiences. The vessels, like other human organs, are not devoid of nerve endings. Under the influence of negative emotions or specialized drugs, they begin to generate random impulses. This leads to a change in the density of the vascular wall.

Symptoms of the disease

The disease manifests itself at different stages in different ways. Symptoms of varicose veins in the first and second stages:

  • severe leg swelling at the end of the day;
  • rapid fatigue of the body;
  • feeling of heaviness in the limbs;
  • feeling of fullness of the veins;
  • convulsions.

In the third stage, the signs of varicose veins begin to progress. Pronounced spider veins are added to the edema. Human skin changes. It becomes drier and darker in places. Against the background of insufficient blood circulation, the patient begins to suffer from eczema, dermatitis, trophic ulcers. In the third and fourth stages of the disease, a person experiences severe pain when moving and at rest. Compression underwear only slightly reduces discomfort in the legs and other parts of the body. The operation is indicated for such patients.

predisposing factors for the development and symptoms of varicose veins

Diagnosis of varicose veins

Varicose veins can be diagnosed by a phlebologist by visual examination of the patient. Blood tests play an important role in the diagnostic process. Most often, in addition to the general analysis, the patient will have to pass a specialized test for the content of cholesterol and platelets in the blood. Confirm the diagnosis using a patient hardware exam.


This technique is suitable for the diagnosis of mild forms of varicose veins. With the defeat of the deep vessels, it is wiser to resort to venography. In addition, ultrasound helps to identify not only varicose veins, but also various injuries of the muscles and cartilage, which can also lead to pain in the limbs and discomfort when moving.


This procedure is a contrast X-ray method for examining a patient's veins. A special solution is introduced into the vessels, which will become an obstacle to X-rays. Thanks to the procedure, it is possible to assess the condition of the valves, find out the patency of the veins and determine the presence of blood clots. In case of severe contrast allergy, it is not performed.

Treatment of varicose veins

Not everyone knows which doctor to turn to if they experience the first symptoms of varicose veins. Some patients go to a cosmetology center to get rid of bulging veins or to a vascular surgeon. All this is a waste of time, as the phlebologist is engaged in the appointment of treatment for varicose veins. He will assess the condition of the veins and skin, then prescribe specific medications or explain what procedure is needed to restore the legs to their former beauty.

Drug therapy

It is possible to get rid of varicose veins not only surgically. In the early stages, the drugs are very effective. Patients are prescribed both in the form of ointments and gels, and in the form of capsules with a large dose of vitamins and venotonic drugs.

The drug should only be managed by a doctor. The patient does not have the right to select drugs on his own.

Creams, ointments and gels

Medicines in this group act as adjuvants for varicose veins. They help relieve the unpleasant symptoms of the disease such as constant fatigue, swelling and pain. One of the positive aspects of using creams, ointments and gels is the increase in vascular tone.


There are many medicines that improve tissue trophism and blood microcirculation. They are selected individually for each patient based on a blood test and the general condition of the body.

Compression shirt

Wearing undergarments and special clothing is a good way to prevent further development of the disease in the early stages of varicose veins. You can buy knitwear with different degrees of compression and different types. The patient cannot worry about his illness being noticed by relatives, relatives or colleagues at work. Most often, patients buy leg products: leggings, knee-highs, stockings, tights. Some patients are prescribed the use of compression shirts and belts when there is a risk of developing varicose veins of the vertebral veins.

Types of compression underwear for varicose veins

Compression shirts differ in texture, pressure and material. It can be prophylactic, postoperative, prophylactic and sports. They produce compression underwear in microfiber, husky, cotton and nylon with greater elasticity. There are no seams in this shirt, so it can be worn under tight-fitting clothing. The linen is permeable to moisture and air. Depending on the degree of compression, the mesh can be:

  • 1st class.The pressure exerted on the veins and vessels is not more than 23 mm. rt. Art. It can be worn by all people, some want to prevent the development of varicose veins.
  • 2nd class.The pressure here is higher and is 33 mm. rt. Art. You can purchase pantyhose and other undergarments with this degree of compression as prescribed by your doctor.
  • 3rd class.The products press on the venous walls with a force of 45 mm. rt. Art. They are prescribed for the treatment of severe venous insufficiency.
  • 4th class.The level of compression of this linen is more than 55 mm. rt. Art. It is prescribed for severe edema to normalize the outflow of lymph.
types of compression stockings for the treatment of varicose veins

How to properly wear compression stockings to make it work?

Clothes with a certain degree of compression are worn directly to bed. This is due to the fact that in the morning the veins are not swollen and not filled with blood, so the patient will not feel discomfort while putting on knee-highs or a special belt. We recommend that you follow these instructions:

  1. Carefully turn the garment inside out.
  2. Lock it onto your foot so that the heel and toe are aligned with yours.
  3. Distribute the object evenly while wearing it.
  4. When pulling the product, make sure it does not twist.
  5. After putting on the item, smooth out any small irregularities.

Operations and procedures

Medicines are not always effective for varicose veins. In some people, the body simply absorbs or excretes incoming substances very quickly, so they have no effect on cells and tissues. In such situations, doctors refer the patient to specialized procedures or surgeries. It should be noted that only surgical intervention can relieve the patient of damaged veins. Other methods of treatment can suspend the development of the disease only for a short time.

Laser coagulation

This method of treating varicose veins is minimally invasive. It can remove veins near the surface of the skin. Deep veins cannot be eliminated using this method. The patient is made a small size, then a laser LED is slowly introduced through the catheter. As soon as the start of the ship is reached, the doctor will activate the laser. It "seals" the damaged vein from the inside. It takes 20-35 minutes to process a vessel, depending on the length. The procedure is performed under local anesthesia. Patients can go home the day after the surgery.

conducting laser coagulation for the treatment of varicose veins

Ablation with radiofrequency

This technique is similar to coagulation, but instead of a laser, a device that generates high-frequency radio waves is used. A special guidewire is also passed through the vein through the catheter, but instead of a laser, the destruction of the vein occurs using the force of sound waves. Patients are also given local anesthesia. After the procedure, patients are released home the same day. After ablation, you cannot engage in heavy physical labor for two days.

the essence of radiofrequency ablation of veins for varicose veins

Ozone therapy

Intravenous ozone has proven itself as a remedy for varicose veins. But this procedure has many contraindications. First, people with hypoglycemia and diabetes cannot expose themselves to ozone therapy, it significantly lowers blood sugar levels. Secondly, the event is contraindicated for people suffering from convulsive syndrome and local circulatory disorders. The main feature of the procedure is that drugs with a certain dose of ozone are injected into the patient's veins. The type of drug and the amount of active ingredient are calculated based on the patient's blood tests and the expected effect.

treatment of varicose veins using ozone therapy

Compression therapy

Some patients mistakenly think that compression stockings and compression therapy are the same thing. Indeed, this is not the case. In compression therapy, local barocompression is used using a specialized apparatus. In a limited area of the body, excess air pressure is created.

The main purpose of the procedure is to improve the lymphatic drainage of the lower limbs and to stimulate the elimination of decomposition products from the body. A special rubber suit is worn on the patient. It is divided into several segments, where air will be supplied, creating an excess wave. Indications for the use of this therapy are limited not only to varicose veins:

  • restless legs syndrome;
  • prevention of congestion of the extremities;
  • arthritis with gout;
  • recovery after surgery on veins, arteries and other vessels;
  • treatment and prevention of trophic disorders of the lower limbs in diabetes.


This term refers to a complete removal of the vein. It is performed in two ways: using standard medical tools and a laser. The second method is considered to be minimally invasive, but is rarely used in clinics due to the lack of proper equipment handling experience. The standard procedure includes 3 steps: crossectomy, stripping, miniflebectomy.


Not many people know that freezing can be used to the fullest. In European clinics it is used in the treatment of varicose veins. This technique is called cryosurgery. The advantage of the operation is that the ship is instantly destroyed under the influence of the cold, but there are too many risks. An inexperienced doctor, in addition to the vein that must be eliminated, can damage the surrounding tissues. Also, not all patients have an organism that normally reacts to metal at negative temperatures.

cryosurgery as a method of treating varicose veins


This method of treating varicose veins is considered the most conservative of all. Special substances, sclerosing, are injected into the veins, causing them in the cords. The composition of the preparations is selected individually for each patient. The undoubted advantage of the procedure is that after the operation the patient can go home. But sclerotherapy does not always help get rid of the disease. In some patients, the body simply breaks down the sclerosant and the diseased vein re-enters the bloodstream.

Healing exercises

Moderate physical activity is the best way to prevent the further spread of varicose veins. You can start performing therapeutic exercises after determining the stage of varicose veins. To normalize blood flow, it is enough to lift the legs upwards. If this option seems too boring to you, do the scissors or birch exercise. Don't forget to stretch. Helps improve tissue nutrition. The specific set of therapeutic exercises should be selected by the doctor.

Folk remedies

Instead of medicines to eliminate varicose veins, you can use a mixture of different medicinal herbs and vegetables. This treatment will help well in the initial stages of varicose veins, but some remedies are also effective in the third degree of the disease. The following are the most effective folk remedies that patients can use regardless of the type of disease.

Horse chestnut

The most effective remedies for varicose veins are those with horse chestnut. This substance is a natural antioxidant that helps normalize the blood supply. As with other drugs, it has its own contraindications. You should not take decoctions and tablets with this plant if you have a congenital intolerance to it. Also, you can not use any folk remedies without consulting a doctor. For varicose veins, you can use the following recipe:

  • 50 grams of esculus flowers pour 500 ml of 70% alcohol.
  • Infuse liquid for 14 days.
  • After 2 weeks, strain the resulting tincture and then consume it 1 tablespoon 3 times a day.
the use of horse chestnut for the treatment of varicose veins

Garlic with oil

This mixture has an amazing effect on the condition of damaged varicose veins. Garlic and peel are crushed into powder and then mixed with butter in a ratio of 1 to 2. The resulting gruel is used for night compresses. Another help for varicose veins is Kalanchoe. 200 grams of the plant are soaked with 500 ml of 70% alcohol, insisted for 14 days, and then smeared with the resulting solution from the leg.


The vegetable root has not only a whitening effect on the skin. Potatoes can also be used to treat varicose veins. 5 potatoes need to be peeled and grated. The resulting gruel should be applied to the area affected by varicose veins. The mixture should stand for 4-5 hours.

Apple cider vinegar

This substance is a natural irritant. Apple cider vinegar can be applied to the skin pure or diluted 1 to 1 with water. In addition, this substance is often used for medicinal lotions. In the latter case, you can add a couple of drops of orange essential oil to the vinegar. But there is a strict contraindication to the use of this folk remedy. It should not be used if there are wounds or sores on the skin.

Complications of varicose veins

Without treatment, the disease begins to pose a serious threat to the patient's life. With severe blood flow disorders, the patient develops trophic ulcers. You can get rid of it in the early stages with the help of medicines, but then the drugs will cease to work. Bleeding often appears against the background of ulcers. The most dangerous complications of varicose veins are thrombophlebitis and phlebothrombosis. In the first case, blood clots are formed in the vein, and in the second it is completely or partially blocked due to blood clots.

Trophic ulcers

The formation of the ulcer begins with a simple bite or scratch. It cannot be ruled out that the area with the worst blood supply becomes a "venous swamp". The wound cannot heal for a long time, it begins to become inflamed and increase in size. As soon as the ulcer reaches the subcutaneous fascia area, the patient realizes that it is not a normal skin lesion, unbearable pain appears. Ulcers can heal on their own if the patient adheres to bed rest and wears compression stockings, but medication is often required to stabilize the patient's condition.

trophic ulcer as a complication of advanced varicose veins


This complication is considered dangerous for varicose veins. The patient often does not feel that they are bleeding, which can lead to profuse blood loss, infection, or fainting. There are several types of bleeding:

  1. Superficial. It is caused by a cut or scratch. An urgent need to cauterize the wound to prevent infection.
  2. Subcutaneous. It can result from injury or on its own. In its place, a hematoma appears.
  3. Out. Due to superficial trauma, the vein walls are severely damaged. An urgent stop is needed.


The disease is characterized by the formation of blood clots in the veins against a background of prolonged inflammation. The ship concerned can be one or more. A distinctive feature of this disease is that it affects only the external veins. Thrombophlebitis can be chronic or acute. Both forms of the disease are very dangerous for the patient. The disease is accompanied by a pronounced painful symptom. They treat her in a hospital.


This disorder is diagnosed if the deep veins of the body are affected. Phlebothrombosis belongs to a class of very life-threatening diseases, it can cause a person to instantly die. The disease is almost always accompanied by varicose veins and increased blood viscosity. In the initial stages, the treatment can be conservative, but if there is a strong blockage, the patient is directed to the excision of a vein or the introduction of special spirals into the vessel that prevent the movement of clots.

Prevention of varicose veins

Problems with leg veins can also occur in normal people without any predisposition, so it is important to pay attention to measures to prevent the development of varicose veins of the lower limbs. Doctors put nutrition first. The patient should monitor who eats so much and what he uses. In addition, the patient must change his lifestyle, giving up bad habits.


Food is a determining factor for the human body. It is not only the number of calories that affects a person's weight, but also the food itself. The abuse of fatty foods that contain a lot of bad cholesterol will lead to the fact that the density of the veins will decrease and blood clots will begin to form on their walls. Therefore, doctors recommend people with a predisposition to varicose veins (varicose veins) to adhere to the following dietary recommendations:

  1. There are many vegetable foods and fruits. They contain a large amount of vitamins.
  2. Try eating light protein foods.
  3. Drink more natural fruit and vegetable juices.

Symptoms of varicose veins also manifest themselves in people who do not abuse bad and unbalanced food, but in such a minority. Most often, patients are diagnosed with chronic vitamin deficiency and severe excess cholesterol levels. Exceeded cholesterol levels in only 3% of patients indicate poor liver function. The rest of the patients themselves cause the deterioration of their condition.


If you are already dealing with the onset of a local venous lesion, you need to reconsider your daily routine and especially your eating habits. For problems with veins in the legs and other parts of the body, it is important to provide the body with adequate rest. To do this, you need to sleep at least 7 hours a day. You should pay close attention to your leisure supplies. It is better to have an orthopedic mattress on the bed, it provides complete relaxation of the body. In addition, doctors give the following recommendations to people suffering from varicose veins:

  1. Wear comfortable clothes and shoes. If you can not refuse shoes with high heels, choose models with a comfortable and anatomically correct shape. It is also recommended to wear an orthopedic insole with shoes.
  2. Go swimming. Even short swims in the pool help strengthen the vascular wall.
  3. Avoid stress. According to statistics, 30% of people develop the disease due to the fact that they are exposed to constant emotional changes.
  4. Give up bad habits. Smoking and alcohol are enemies of a healthy cardiovascular system.

The most important thing in each stage of varicose veins is to follow the recommendations of the phlebologist. If your doctor strongly recommends giving up any bad habits or joining the pool, then you should do it.