Patients diagnosed with varicose veins need surgery, any phlebologist will confirm this. With severe venous dysfunction, conservative therapy will not help, ointments and pills will relieve symptoms, but will not address the cause of the disease. Modern phlebology offers several options to solve the problem: from the classic excision of the affected areas of the veins to minimally invasive techniques.
Varicose veins in the limbs are a common ailment that women are more likely to suffer from. The risk zone also includes people who are forced to spend most of the day on their feet, patients with excess weight, hereditary predisposition. Initially, the problem may be subtle. For a variety of reasons, blood flow deteriorates and the movement of blood from the lower limbs to the heart slows down. At the same time, lymphatic retention occurs, which causes swelling and heaviness in the legs. Gradually, the affected vessels are deformed, which further impairs blood flow, provokes the formation of adhesions and blood clots, and pathologies of the deep veins of the lower extremities occur.
The first stage of the disease can be almost asymptomatic. At the end of the day, swelling of the ankles and feet is observed, the patient feels a pulling pain that disappears at rest. When contacting a doctor, the patient is prescribed a course of blood thinners and venotonics. The second stage is characterized by an increase in blood vessels on the legs, they form a convex painful mesh. Bluish veins protrude above the surface of the skin, micro tears with small hematomas are possible.
Stage 2 varicose veins require immediate treatment under the supervision of a vascular surgeon or phlebologist. At this time, patients may be recommended sclerotherapy, gluing the affected vessels. At stage 3, noticeable convex nodes are formed, the legs hurt even at rest, patients suffer from convulsions. Patients are advised to undergo surgery to remove leg veins using a scalpel or laser. At this stage, conservative therapy is powerless.
Severe pathology - deep vein thrombosis of the lower limbs. Its causes are blood stagnation, leg injuries, tumors, long-term recovery after difficult operations. The pathology of the deep veins of the lower extremities is difficult to treat conservatively. To eliminate the threat, it is necessary to remove the blood clot as soon as possible, and then conduct a course of treatment with drugs that improve blood flow. The operation to clean the deep veins of the lower limbs is not performed in all clinics; the procedure requires great skill on the part of the surgeon.
An experienced phlebologist will help to understand if an operation is needed for varicose veins. At the first alarming symptoms and noticeable lesions of at least one vein in the legs, it is necessary to consult a therapist who will give a referral to a narrow specialist. The patient is tested, the state of the vessels is studied using ultrasound. Surgical treatment of varicose veins is the only option to completely get rid of the problem. The specialist must determine when it is necessary to perform the operation, as well as choose the right technique. Before deciding on an intervention, it is worth looking at the reviews of previous visitors to the clinic. Advice from a third-party specialist won't hurt either. Surgery to remove varicose veins on the legs is a serious procedure. The more advanced the disease, the more difficult any radical intervention will be for the patient.
Modern surgery offers several ways to solve the problem. An experienced surgeon should decide how to remove varicose veins in the legs. With an average degree of varicose veins, minimally invasive techniques are recommended. Their advantages are a short recovery period, a lower risk of complications and the absence of general anesthesia. Short-term surgery of the vessels of the legs is usually performed under local anesthesia without hospitalization.
One of the popular options is sclerotherapy. During the procedure, an adhesive is injected into the affected veins which stimulates the proliferation of connective tissue. The vascular cavities are filled, the blood flow passes to the deep veins. The procedure is contraindicated in the presence of blood clots. The disadvantages of this type of surgery for varicose veins include a high risk of recurrence. If the patient does not make any lifestyle changes and loses weight, the problem will recur.
Surgical treatment of varicose veins of the lower limbs can be performed using a laser. This technique is indicated for extensive vascular lesions located deep under the skin. Removing varicose veins in the legs requires great skill on the part of the surgeon. The laser does not leave deep wounds, the postoperative period is easier. Removal of the leg veins is performed under general or local anesthesia, the choice of the method of anesthesia depends on the patient's condition.
Another modern option is radiofrequency surgery for varicose veins of the lower limbs. It is recommended for vessels that are located directly under the skin. In this case, the laser cannot be used to avoid burns. During the operation for varicose veins, a catheter is inserted into the affected vein and radio waves are transmitted directly to the damaged tissues. They become denser, the vessel is absorbed. After the procedure, there are practically no scars and scars on the skin. The disadvantage of this technique is the high price.
For severely twisted vessels, a minimally invasive steam method may be offered. In this case, the treatment of varicose veins is carried out using a thin catheter inserted directly into the vessel. The vapor enters through the microholes, the affected vein attaches itself and disappears. Microparticles of hot distilled water penetrate the most complex plexuses and completely eliminate the ugly convex mesh. This procedure can be performed by a highly experienced vascular surgeon with the necessary equipment. The technique is one of the most expensive, but the most effective.
In some cases, the doctor will recommend a classic resection using a scalpel. It is indicated for varicose veins complicated by thrombophlebitis, persistent impaired blood flow, severe leg swelling and risk of trophic ulcers. Surgical treatment of varicose veins takes place in a hospital, using general or local anesthesia.
The simplest option is the classic phlebectomy. The indication is the initial stage of the disease, impaired venous blood flow. The procedure lasts no more than 2 hours. The skin is incised with a scalpel in the groin and ankles and incisions are made on the large knots. A venous extractor is inserted into the incision, with the help of which the damaged vessel is removed. Then a suture is applied to the skin, the leg is closed with a sterile bandage, which is fixed with an elastic bandage.
It is possible to operate on the affected veins in a less traumatic way. Mini-phlebectomy is performed on an outpatient basis, each action of the surgeon is monitored by an ultrasound machine. With the help of special micro-tools, punctures are made in the skin through which the affected veins are removed. Sutures are not applied, puncture sites are treated with antiseptics and covered with a sterile bandage. Already 10 hours after the operation, the patient can walk.
A very important point is the recovery after surgery. When using minimally invasive techniques, the patient is discharged immediately after the procedure. It is advisable not to go home by public transport to avoid accidental injury. After removing the veins with varicose veins, the patient wears compression stockings or knee-highs, in extreme cases, an elastic bandage can be used. The rehabilitation period after minimally invasive techniques is short, taking no more than 2 weeks. Bed rest is not necessary, walking at a calm pace is recommended, and therapeutic exercises are recommended.
After leg vein surgery, the patient should follow a gentle diet. In the first days, porridges on water, steam cutlets, vegetable soups are allowed. All spicy, fatty, fried foods, smoked meats, pickles, sweets are prohibited. The menu must include fresh fruit and vegetables. It is important to avoid foods that can cause constipation or diarrhea. After the operation of the varicose veins of the lower extremities, any tension that can provoke the appearance of blood clots is harmful. The diet should be light; excess calories will lead to weight gain. Mandatory recommendations: complete cessation of alcohol and smoking.
The postoperative period after removal of the leg veins is more difficult. If stitches have been applied, it should take at least 2 days for the patient to get out of bed. You can fully recover in a few months, at which time you must strictly follow all the recommendations of the doctor. In the first days, sterile dressings are changed daily, the skin is treated with antiseptics. This will eliminate unpleasant consequences in the form of suppuration, inflammation and edema. In case of painful sensations in the postoperative period, the patient is prescribed analgesics in the form of tablets or injections.
Varicose veins after surgery require special attention. During the rehabilitation period, the patient is prescribed a course of drugs to thin the blood. It is necessary to take vitamins, especially ascorbic acid, which prevents thrombosis and improves blood flow. Proper rehabilitation after surgery will help avoid complications and exclude relapses of the disease.