The vessels and the heart work in our body without interruption. By pumping the blood, they support metabolism and overall health. When the load on the ships increases, they need strength to resist the increase in pressure. Otherwise, the tone of the veins decreases, which leads to an expansion of their lumen and deterioration of functions. Pathological expansion of the venous vessels is called varicose veins. In the absence of proper treatment, this condition can lead to serious problems and irreversible consequences.
Varicose veins have different classifications that take into account different criteria. The disease can be characterized in terms of functional disorders, structural changes, clinical signs and other factors. The international classification distinguishes the following types or classes of varicose veins:
There is also a division of varicose veins into forms, depending on the location of the pathology:
In assessing a patient's condition, doctors usually use several classifications and provide a mixed description of the clinical picture. This helps to more accurately describe the ongoing changes and determine the stage of development of the pathological process.
The main classification of varicose veins is the division according to functional disorders. It distinguishes three stages of varicose veins:
Sometimes they add the zero stage, which is initial and is characterized by the absence of clinical manifestations.
Let's take a look at each of them in more detail.
The development of varicose veins takes a long time.The disease does not appear immediately, but after constant exposure to a provoking factor. This can be heavy lifting, a sedentary lifestyle, pregnancy, smoking and other reasons. Changes in the vessels occur gradually, but they become noticeable to a person already in the early stages. It is best to start treatment when the first symptoms appear. Depending on the stage of the varicose veins of the lower extremities, the tactics of therapy will depend.
At this stage of the development of the pathology, adequate treatment can not only stop the progression of the disease, but also lead to complete recovery. The difficulty lies in the fact that varicose veins are rarely diagnosed at an early stage. This usually happens during an accidental examination, since the patient does not attach importance to external changes in the vessels, which are barely noticeable at this stage.
Grade 1 varicose veins cause nonspecific symptoms, so most patients associate them with normal fatigue. May be bothered by:
Small purple threads appear on the surface of the skin - dilated venous vessels. The affected area may take on a bluish tinge. Most often, discomfort worries in the lower leg - in the ankle, in the lower leg. This is where varicose veins usually begin, since the load on the venous vessels is maximum.
In the first phase, symptoms intensify in the evening, with standing or prolonged exercise. Most often this is similar to the usual tiredness after a working day, so patients rarely go to the doctor for advice and treatment.
Grade 2 varicose veins are a condition with more pronounced symptoms and poor efficacy of conservative treatment. At this stage, the deformation of the veins becomes more noticeable.
This manifests itself externally, as well as in the patient's well-being. The vessels are greatly dilated and can protrude above the surface of the skin. Form of nodules - areas where blood stagnates, swelling and pain appear.
Normal blood flow to this grade of varicose veins is impaired; during the examination, the doctor detects reverse reflux due to the loose contact of the valves. Numbness, tingling, sensory disturbances add to the unpleasant symptoms. The swelling and pain disappear in the morning after a night's rest, but recur in the evening.
In the absence of adequate treatment for grade 2 varicose veins, the pathology continues to progress, as the vessels are unable to cope with the existing load. The diseased limb begins to function worse and causes constant discomfort. Swelling and reduced sensitivity disturb at any time of the day. The patient is forced to limit physical activity, but rest does not bring much relief.
Venous nodules and visible areas of the IVV increase the area of the lesion.In late clinical symptoms, problems with the skin come together- it loses its elasticity, becomes dry, itching or eczematous rashes may appear. The subcutaneous tissue is easily injured, bleeding and areas of hyperpigmentation occur.
Violation of blood circulation, which is practically not eliminated, leads to the lack of adequate nutrition of the tissues and the reception of oxygen by them. After a while, trophic ulcers appear in this place, which can provoke even a minor injury. Healing is very slow and difficult, there is a high probability of activation of the pathogenic flora. Such patients get a disability. It is a serious condition that is often fatal due to a bacterial infection or massive bleeding.
The treatment methods will be different for each phase. In the compensation phase, the patient can restore the tone of the veins with the help of compression and venotonic garments, and during decompensation they will be completely ineffective.
It is not difficult for a specialist to identify varicose veins and make a correct diagnosis. For this, the patient's complaints and external manifestations of the pathology are enough. To accurately determine the stage of development of varicose veins, duplex examination, ultrasound, reovasography are prescribed. A blood test will help assess the likelihood of a blood clot.
Taking the medical history is an important step in the diagnosis of varicose veins. The doctor can identify predisposing factors: smoking, inactive lifestyle, heredity. A visual examination of the veins, changes in local temperature, palpation are performed.
Treatment of varicose veins must be carried out in order to prevent trophic alterations in the tissues and irreversible processes. The tactics of therapy depends on the stage of varicose veins and can include several areas:
Folk recipes are very popular in the treatment of many diseases, including varicose veins. People believe that their effectiveness has been proven by many years of experience, but this is not entirely true. The gifts of nature really contain useful substances that help fight the symptoms of varicose veins, as well as strengthen the vascular wall.
Patients often take home baths or food or herbal compresses for varicose veins. For example, the treatment of varicose veins with household soap or cabbage compresses is popular. Positive reviews have been received for nutmeg, aloe, honey, horse chestnut.
However, doctors understand that such methods are effective only in the initial stages of the disease. Also, they can definitely be used to prevent varicose veins. When the pathology has passed to a more advanced stage, drug treatment is indispensable.
The pathological changes that occur in the veins worsen as the varicose veins progress. It takes a long time to get the ship back to its original state. The earlier the treatment is started, the faster the surrounding veins and tissues will restore their structure and function.
In addition to any method of treatment, the patient must follow a correct lifestyle: stop smoking, do not carry excessive loads to the gym, minimize stress and go for walks in the fresh air.