Varicose veins are a pathology of the venous system, in which there is an incompetence of the vessels and valves in the performance of their functions due to their changes.
Venous disease affects both men and women, but women are more prone to varicose veins. There are varicose veins in different parts of the body, but most often they are varicose veins of the lower limbs. The changes are gradual but irreversible. Therefore, the main task of the patient is to identify the problem in time and contact a specialist.
Varicose veins of the lower limbs appear as a result of an improper lifestyle: a sedentary rhythm or too strong physical activity, improper diet, insufficient intake of pure water.
The most important provoking factor is genetic diseases that are transmitted via the X chromosome. A hereditary predisposition to vascular wall weakness and valve system failure will eventually lead to varicose veins on the legs.
During pregnancy, the risk of disease is significantly increased due to the increase in blood volume and compression of the retroperitoneal veins by the uterus. By the same principle, tight clothing (corsets) and uncomfortable shoes cut off blood circulation.
About 33% of obese people have varicose veins in their legs. The hormonal imbalance that occurs after taking hormonal drugs and contraceptives is also a provoking factor.
Let's consider the normal blood circulation process.
The venous system consists of deep, superficial and communicating veins and valves. Blood from superficial veins flows into deep ones through communicating (perforating) vessels. Valves prevent blood from flowing in the opposite direction. Venous tone ensures normal blood circulation and stable venous pressure.
The mechanism of development of varicose veins on the lower limbs is an increase in blood pressure on the walls of blood vessels, which occurs during the operation of a muscle pump. As a result, the walls of the veins expand, become even thinner, nodes form and valve insufficiency develops. Venous blood reflux occurs - the reflux of blood from deep to superficial veins. There is an increase in hydrostatic pressure, fluid stagnation, edema and trophic disorders develop.
Varicose veins in the legs are shown in the photo below.
Depending on the stage, patients will have different complaints and will notice different symptoms. In the early stages, patients notice the appearance of heaviness in the legs, mild edema and increased fatigue.
Symptoms may not be present at all during the compensation phase, so people rarely go to the doctor at first. In the future, the described symptoms acquire a more stable form: the pain intensifies, the severity and swelling of the lower limbs increase.
The second and third stages differ in that local signs appear on the legs: venous course, asterisks, spiders. There are many names, but the essence is the same - telangiectasias - small varicose veins on the legs, soft to the touch.
The fourth stage - the last, when the legs are very swollen, they acquire a bluish-violet hue, the skin dries up and flakes, pigmentation appears. Patients complain of constant pain in the lower limbs. The veins are visible to the naked eye, they are dense, sinuous, protruding in clusters. With premature treatment, trophic ulcers form in the late stages.
Venous dilation can be accompanied by complications:
In case of a complicated course, the patient will have an increased body temperature and general weakness.
Everyone is worried about the question: what to do with varicose veins in the legs? The answer is quite simple: in time to contact a phlebologist who specializes in the treatment of venous diseases. He will prescribe adequate therapy depending on the stage of the disease, the patient's condition and venous insufficiency.
Initially, it is necessary to remove all provoking factors of the disease, normalize nutrition and diet, introduce minor but effective physical exercises and increase physical activity.
If your job is to stay in the same position for a long time, you should periodically do gymnastics, walk or change the supporting leg. Your diet should be dominated by fresh fruits and vegetables, lean meat and fish. It is imperative to purchase compression underwear or learn to bandage tightly. Such methods will prevent further changes in the blood vessels, increase the tone and reduce the manifestations of venous disease in the legs (see photo).
Drug therapy includes prescribing topical medications that reduce swelling, improve tissue nutrition, reduce pain and prevent complications.
Tablets are used in stages when local ones can no longer cope or are contraindicated. For the treatment of diseases of the veins of the lower extremities, endovasal laser coagulation procedures, sclerotherapy and ozone therapy are prescribed.
Laser coagulation: the effect of a laser on the affected vessel. After a few weeks, the venous pattern disappears.
Sclerotherapy: by filling a vein with a substance that "sticks" to its walls, blood begins to flow through healthy veins.
Ozone therapy is similar to the previous method, but ozone is introduced here. For the complete disappearance of the manifestations on the skin, it is necessary to carry out several procedures.
From surgical interventions, various miniflebectomies and stripping are actively used. Crossectomy is very traumatic and is rarely used today. Phlebectomies are performed with minimal puncture incisions through which the veins are removed using tools or a special thin probe. Patients recover quickly, feel practically no pain after the operation, and after a couple of days they return to their usual routine.
Some people prefer to use unconventional methods for the treatment of varicose veins of the lower extremities. But here you need to be careful, because not all methods are equally good at different stages of the disease.
In the initial stages of the manifestation of varicose veins, you can use a contrast shower, herbal baths. It is strictly forbidden to visit baths, saunas. Relieves fatigue and normalizes vascular tone chamomile, birch leaves, horse chestnut. From apples Antonovka, Kalanchoe, potatoes, they make tinctures and process legs with them. But with such recipes you need to be extremely careful, they are not used for trophic wounds, bleeding from varicose veins of the lower extremities.
As a preventative measure, do leg exercises in the morning and evening. Make it a habit. Try not to get fat, check your diet.
It is important to promptly treat concomitant diseases that can cause varicose veins, and not just on the legs. A contrast shower is a universal remedy for toning and hardening blood vessels throughout the body. Hydromassage should be carried out along the bloodstream - from the bottom up and alternately changing the water from cold to hot and vice versa.
Simple preventive measures will help prevent the disease and the habit of a correct lifestyle, and the control of your health will help prevent not only varicose veins, but also other possible problems.