Varicose veins are a commonly diagnosed condition. The disease, if left untreated, significantly impairs the quality of human life.
What are varicose veins? To answer the question, it is necessary to have an idea of the mechanism of development of the pathology.
The leg veins are a branched network of saphenous and deep veins connected by communicating veins. Superficial veins are used to drain blood from the subcutaneous tissue and skin, deep veins - from other tissues.
Connecting vessels are needed to equalize the pressure. Blood flow in them is possible only from the saphenous veins to the deep ones.
The venous walls do not have a muscle layer, therefore, the movement of blood from the periphery to the center is carried out due to the residual arterial pressure. The tendons take part in the process, which also exerts some pressure.
The main role is given to the muscle pump. During physical activity, the muscular system contracts. As a result, the blood rises through the vessels, as the return flow is obstructed by the venous valve system.
The insufficiency of the valves and the weakening of the walls of the venous channels leads to the fact that the blood is able to move both up and down. Excessive pressure causes varicose veins, nodules, and venous insufficiency. At this stage, we can talk about the development of varicose veins.
Important! Varicose veins can also affect the veins of the upper digestive tract, especially the stomach. The treatment is done surgically.
There are many factors that can provoke the development of the disease. There are several main ones:
Doctors distinguish several classifications of the disease. Some doctors use a gradual classification:
Another classification is international. It is used everywhere.
The saphenous veins are affected first. At the beginning of the formation of varicose veins, varicose veins of a characteristic purple hue begin to appear. The place of localization is the ankles and the surface of the legs.
The initial phase is characterized by:
In the first stage, the following develops:
For the second stage, the following symptoms are typical:
The third phase is accompanied by:
Important! The presence of complications is indicated by an increase in body temperature.
With the formation of deep venous varicose veins, the following symptoms occur:
Important! With the development of thrombosis, symptoms develop suddenly.
Diagnosis of varicose veins is not difficult. An ultrasound examination, an x-ray of the veins using contrast medium and a blood test to determine the clotting speed should be prescribed.
Conservative therapy of the disease involves adherence to a diet, the use of compression underwear and the intake of medications.
Overweight is one of the provoking factors in the development of varicose veins. You have to completely exclude from the menu:
The main part of the diet should be fresh fruits and vegetables, foods rich in fiber (they improve intestinal function, preventing the development of constipation), seafood.
Meals should be fractional: at least 4 times a day.
Smoking should be stopped completely. This requirement applies to both men and women / girls. Inhaled resins cause blockage of blood vessels and carbon dioxide causes spasm. This increases the risk of blood clots and associated secondary complications.
Wearing compression underwear is recommended as a prophylaxis and treatment for an early stage of the disease. You have to wear it in the morning without getting out of bed.
Important! When buying underwear, it is necessary to take into account the degree of compression, so the attending physician should select it. Only a specialist can correctly take into account the existing symptoms.
It is impossible to completely get rid of varicose veins by taking medications. But it is quite possible to stop the development of the disease and relieve severe symptoms.
Venotonics are drugs often used in the treatment of varicose veins. They help protect the venous walls and improve blood microcirculation by stimulating venous outflow.
Treatment with venotonic drugs is carried out twice a year. The duration of each is 2 months.
Drugs are prescribed in combination with other medicines.
The tablet format of venotonic is recommended for deep vein lesions. They proved effective:
Treatment of varicose veins by this group consists of intravenous administration of phlebosclerosis drugs or the imposition of an elastic bandage. After the introduction of the drug, the vascular lumen is gradually closed with connective tissue and is excluded from the general blood flow.
It is worth remembering that isolated sclerotherapy does not give a stable result and is not able to slow down the development of the disease. Most often, combined use with surgical treatment is recommended.
Important!At the preparatory stage, an ultrasound examination of the lower limbs is necessarily performed in order to exclude the presence of varicose lesions of the deeply localized veins.
The technique has its contraindications. It:
As an additional drug therapy, the following groups of drugs are prescribed:
Phlebosclerosis therapy - gluing of vascular lumens - can be used in the following cases:
Important!The puncture technique is used at all times, but the catheter technique is used exclusively during surgery.
The puncture method of phlebosclerosis involves closing the large veins and only then the small ones. Processing is done from top to bottom.
The dashed line is drawn vertically. Then the person is lying down and the drug is started. If it is necessary to treat a large area, the procedure is carried out in several sessions. Recovery takes 2 weeks.
After completing the sclerosis procedure, the following recommendations should be observed:
Treatment of varicose veins with a radio frequency emitter is a new technique. During the procedure, the risk of damage to the ship is minimized as much as possible. At the same time, its effectiveness is unusually high: only the inner shell of the vessel is destroyed, the surrounding tissues do not suffer.
The treatment is carried out with local anesthesia under the control of duplex angiography. The patient does not need hospitalization.
The procedure itself looks like this:
The ability to work is restored after 24 hours.
The decision to perform surgery is the responsibility of the attending physician. Surgery is the only way to completely cure even advanced varicose veins.
The following techniques are practiced:
This is the most common method of surgical treatment of varicose veins. The surgery is performed both under general anesthesia and with the implementation of epidural anesthesia.
The saphenous vein is removed through a 1. 5 cm incision in the genital area (perineal area). It is used to introduce a phlebestractor probe. During its extraction, the inflamed venous area is removed. The small veins are removed through miniature incisions.
After the end of the operation, the patient is put on a compression stocking or an elastic bandage is performed.
Removal of venous areas is done by exposure to electric current.
Removal of veins is based on the use of low temperatures. The technique is relatively safe, but depth-of-freezing calculations are sometimes incorrect. It is rarely used.
The technique involves the introduction of a sclerosing drug through a catheter.
After cutting the saphenous vein, a catheter is inserted into its lumen. Simultaneously with its extraction, the sclerosant is released.
The endoscopic dissection technique allows for ligation and subsequent exclusion of the inflamed vein from the general blood flow system. The operation is performed using endoscopic probes.
Important!A variant of the operation is phlebectomy using transillumination.
The procedure uses a medical laser. With its help, damaged veins are sealed, due to which it is excluded from the general blood flow.
Home therapy for varicose veins is not just about taking medications prescribed by a doctor. Alternative methods of treating the disease can also be used:
But the practice of alternative treatment should not rule out a selected drug therapy.
A practicable physical activity becomes the main preventive measure for the development of varicose veins. If it becomes necessary to stand or sit for a long time, it is necessary to periodically strain the muscles of the legs. Swimming and cycling will be useful.
What is the danger of varicose veins if it is not treated? In the absence of adequate therapy, the formation of non-healing trophic ulcers, which can lead to complete disability, is not excluded. That is why, with the development of characteristic symptoms, it is necessary to contact a phlebologist and begin treatment.